School Garden Research Papers and Reports

Survey of Hawai‘i Island School Gardens 2010-2011

Production Report: January 2008 to May 2010

Impact of Garden-Based Youth Nutrition Intervention Programs: A Review
Journal of the American Dietetic Association

School Gardens Grow Science Achievement Scores

National Science Teachers Association

"Research and Policy Supporting Garden Based Learning"

California School Garden Network

"Benefits of Garden Based Learning"
Cornell University

"The Growing Phenomenon of School Gardens: Measuring Their Variation and Their Affect on Student's Sense of Responsibility and Attitudes Toward Science and the Environment"
By Sonja M. Skelly and Jennifer Campbell Bradley

"Use of School Gardens in Academic Instruction"
By Heather Graham et al, 2005

"The Effects of School Gardens on Students and Schools: Conceptualization and Considerations for Maximizing Healthy Development"
By Emily Ozer

"New on the Menu: Districtwide Changes to School Food Start in the Kitchen of Portland's Abernethy Elementary"

"An Evaluation of the School Lunch Initiative"
Center for Ecoliteracy

Farm to School and School Garden Research Consortium Discussion

"Getting Started: A Guide For Creating School Gardens as Outdoor Classrooms"
Center For Ecoliteracy

"Innovation Through Learning Gardens"
Growing Gardens of Portland, Oregon

"The Effects of School Garden Experiences in Middle School Aged Students: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Associated with Vegetable Consumption"
By Michelle Ratcliffe PhD.

"Garden Based Education in School Settings: The Effects on Children's Vegetable Consumption, Vegetable Preferences, and Ecoliteracy"
By Michelle Ratcliffe, Ph.D.

"The Child In the Garden: An Evaluative Review of the Benefits of School Gardens"
By Dorothy Blair

"The Factors Affecting Elementary School Teachers Integration of School Gardens into the Curriculum"
By Laurie W. DeMarco

Agriculture's Role in K-12 Education: Proceedings of a Forum on the National Science Education Standards
Steering Committee on Agriculture's Role in K-12 Education, National Research Council

HICORE - Hawaii Initiative for Childhood Obesity Research and Education
The Hawai‘i Initiative for Childhood Obesity Research and Education (HICORE) provides collaborative and multi-disciplinary leadership in research and education on childhood obesity, physical activity and nutrition in Hawai‘i. The Initiative is based at the University of Hawai‘i John A. Burns School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics and is the collaborative effort of academic and community partners in Hawai‘i.

Garden Based Learning: Considering assessment from a learner-centered approach
Aarti Subramaniam
4-H Center for Youth Development Department of Human and Community Development
University of California, Davis

Learning from Others: Synthesis of Experiences in Garden-Based Learning for School-Age Children in Five Southern African Countries
Based on papers prepared in Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe for submission to the Workshop “Garden-Based Learning for Improved Livelihoods and Nutrition Security of School Children in High HIV-Prevalence Areas in Southern Africa,” Harare, 19-21 June 2007

USDA Farm to School Team
2010 Summary Report, July 2011

UC Davis Center for Nutrition in Schools
Research articles and other publications found here provided the foundation for curriculum, Nutrition Education Competencies, and other materials developed by CNS.

Research Supporting the Benefits of School Gardens

School Gardens:

Significantly increase science achievement scores.
- Klemmer, C. D., T. M. Waliczek, and J. M. Zajicek. 2005. Growing minds: The effect of a school gardening program on the science achievement of elementary students. HortTechnology 15(3):448-452.
- Smith, L. L., and C. E. Motsenbocker. 2005. Impact of hands-on science through school gardening in Louisiana public elementary schools. HortTechnology 15(3):439-443.

Improve social skills and behavior.
- DeMarco, L., P. D. Relf, and A. McDaniel. 1999. Integrating gardening into the elementary school curriculum. HortTechnology 9(2):276-281.

Improve environmental attitudes, especially in younger students.
- Skelly, S. M., and J. M. Zajicek. 1998. The effect of an interdisciplinary garden program on the environmental attitudes of elementary school students. HortTechnology 8(4):579- 583.

Instill appreciation and respect for nature that lasts into adulthood.
- Lohr, V.I. and C.H. Pearson-Mims. 2005. Children’s active and passive interactions with plants influence their attitudes and actions toward trees and gardening as adults. HortTechnology. 15(3): 472-476.

Improve life skills, including working with groups and self-understanding.
- Robinson, C.W., and J. M. Zajicek. 2005. Growing minds: the effects of a one-year school garden program on six constructs of life skills of elementary school children. HortTechnology 15(3):453-457.

Increase interest in eating fruits and vegetables and improve attitude toward fruits and vegetables.
- Pothukuchi, K. 2004. Hortaliza: A Youth “Nutrition Garden” in Southwest Detroit. Children, Youth and Environments 14(2):124-155.

Improve attitude toward vegetables and toward fruit and vegetable snacks.
- Lineberger, S. E., and J. M. Zajicek. 1999. School gardens: Can a hands-on teaching tool affect students’ attitudes and behaviors regarding fruits and vegetables? HortTechnology 10(3):593-597.

Improve nutrition knowledge and vegetable preferences.
- Morris, JL and Zidenberg-Cherr, S. 2002. Garden-based nutrition curriculum improves fourth-grade school children's knowledge of nutrition and preferences for some vegetables. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 102(1): 91-93.

Increase children’s knowledge about the benefits of eating fruit and vegetables and participants reported eating healthier snacks.
- Koch, S., T. M. Waliczek, and J.M. Zajicek. 2006. The Effect of Summer Garden Program on the Nutritional Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors of Children. HortTechnology 16 (4): 620-625. Increase fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescents.
- McAleese, J.D., and L.L. Rankin. 2007. Garden-Based Nutrition Education Affects Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Sixth-Grade Adolescents. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 107 (4): 662-665.

Contribute to communication of knowledge and emotions, while developing skills that will help them be more successful in school.
- Miller, D. L. The Seeds of Learning: Young Children Develop Important Skills Through Their Gardening Activities at a Midwestern Early Education Program. Applied Environmental Education & Communication 6(1):49-66.

Have a positive impact on student achievement and behavior.
- Blair, D. (2009). The child in the garden: an evaluative review of the benefits of school gardening. Journal of Environmental Education 40(2), 15-38.